Aphid is one of the most damaging insect pest and this pest mat reduce the yield 50 to 80%. Both adults and nymphs are harmful. They suck cell sap from all plant parts. Week plant, curled leaves, hindering of flowers and pod formation are the characteristic symptoms of aphid attack. Infested pod become off shape and reduced in size. So oil percentage of the seeds is less.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF APHIDS
We can reduce aphid infestation in mustard crop 50-70% if we do early sowing of Tori-7 variety.
In every time we must give priority to the biological control of insect rather than chemical control of insect to keep our environment pollution free. Also another point which support biological control of insect that is '' sometimes residual of the insecticide or pesticide remain into agricultural crops and this residual chemicals are not good for our health. Neem seed kernel extract or neem oil are very good to control aphids and neem seed kernel are used fro this purpose from ancient time. If we spray two times neem seed kernel extract or neem oil @ 7 day interval, it will be a effective control measure of aphids in mustard crop field.
LADYBIRD beetle is a predator of aphids. So we can conserve LADYBIRD beetle mustard field to control aphids.
Formulation neem seed kernel extract: At first we have to take 50gm crushed neem seed kernel, then it should be added with 1L water to make a formulation.
Formulation of neem oil: At first we have to take 4 ml neem oil, then it should be added with 2 g detergent/L of water to make a formulation.
Neem seed kernel is better than neem oil.
In case severe infestation we can use chemicals ( insecticide ) such as Malathion 57EC or other insecticide for aphids control. We must take suggestion of government agricultural officer before applying any chemicals in agricultural crop fields.
But we must remember that chemical is harmful for our health and environment.