Thursday, September 12, 2013

Factors Of Cropping Pattern Of A Locality

Cropping pattern of different locality are depend on some factors of that locality. Factors are categorized into some broad term such as Weather, Soil, Social condition, Production inputs and price, Mechanization facilities, Government policy and Natural calamities.

Weather: humidity, day length, rainfall, temperature are main points or factors of cropping pattern.
Humidity: Some crops like tea grow well in high humidity. So humidity is a factor.
Day length: Potato grows well in short day length where wheat, onion need long day length.
Rainfall: Tea needs heavy rainfall where barley and chickpea grow in arid climate.
Temperature: In temperate countries wheat grows well where in sub tropical area rice is grows well.

Soil: Soil conditions such as soil pH, salinity, ground water table, soil topography and soil texture are also determinants of cropping pattern.
Soil pH: tea grows in acidic soil where coconut needs alkaline soil to grow well.
Salinity: Crops are not grow well in saline soil. So we need to develop saline tolerant varieties for saline area. But few crops like tomatoes and broccoli may grow in moderately saline water.
Ground water table: Shallow rooted crops do not grow well in that area where water table is low.
Soil topography: Sesame, pineapple, zinger, turmeric etc grows well in those land which are not under flood water but pulses, oil seeds grows well in those land where little flood water comes usually.
Soil texture: Sweet potato, groundnut, water melon grows well in sandy land but rice needs clay or sandy clay soil.
Soil water : rice needs more soil water than any other crops.

Social condition: Some social conditions are determinants of cropping pattern. Mainly these are problem of under developed and developing countries.
Financial condition: Poor farmer can not grow expensive crops like sugarcane, Banana etc. Because these crops need high initial cost.
Transport problem: Poor communication facility is the major determinants in a locality.
Market price: Good market price influence the farmer to grow crops.
Food habit: The crops that are not present in the food habit in a locality, are not grown at that locality.
Storage facility: Where there are no storage facility, farmers of that locality usually do not grow vegetables.
Attitude of farmer: Some times farmers do not want to adopt modern technology.

Production inputs:It is the direct regulator of cropping pattern of region. If there is no available inputs, farmer will not go for production.

Mechanization facilities: If there is no extraction facility, farmer will not cultivate oil seeds, if there is no shelling facility farmer will not go for corn cultivation.

Government policy: Good government policy, crop insurance and facility influence farmer to grow a particular crop of a certain area.
Natural calamity: Cyclone, flood etc are the factors of coastal area and drought is factor of arid region.

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Classification of Agricultural farming System

There are some ways to classify the farming system of agriculture. We can classify this type farming on the basis of agricultural land availability, on the basis of farm enterprise, on the basis of ownership of the area of the farming land, on the basis of enterprise number and on he basis of availability of water of the farming area.

On the basis of agricultural land availability we can classify the agricultural farming system into two system and they are extensive farming system and intensive farming system.
when more land is available for cultivation and by increasing the cultivation area we produce more crops and yield, then it is called extensive farming system. when in a farm intensive care is taken for intensive cropping and increasing production in a unit area by introducing modern technologies and other facilities then it is called intensive farming system.

On the basis of farm enterprise we can classify the agricultural farming system into two category such as specialized farming system and diversified farming system.
If there is an enterprise in a farm and that farm is done specially for that enterprise, this type farm is known as specialized farming system. As for example we can cultivation of wheat, cultivation of maize, cultivation of rice etc. If there are two or more crops or enterprises in diversified condition in a farm then this farming is called diversified farming system. Mixed cropping is a good example of diversified farming system.

On the basis of the ownership of the area of the farming land we can classify farming system into three group. They are estate farming system, co-operative farming system, collective farming system. When government is the owner of the farming land, it is called estate farming system. when a group of farmer create a farm by co-operative and cultivate together, share the products among themselves on the basis of their own land then it is known as co-operative farming system. when government has done a farm on the land of some farmers and the outputs are distributed among the farmers as par the decision of government then this type farming is known as collective farming system.

On the basis of enterprise number we can classify the farming system into two category such as monofarming system and mixed farming system. If a farm has only one enterprise then it is known as monofarming system. Such as fisheries, poultry,crop or livestock farming. If there are two or more enterprise in a farm then it is known as mixed farming. As for example maize with potato, crops with fisheries etc.

On the basis of availability of water in a farm area we can classify farms into rainfed farming system and irrigated farming system. If a farm is totally depend on rainfall then this type farming is known as rainfed farming system. If crop cultivation by irrigated water then this type farming system is known as irrigated farming system.

Sunday, September 8, 2013

Integrated Pest Management In agriculture

In short we can say Integrated Pest Management is the way of pest management without doing harm the environment.
Entomological Society of America and FAO Panel of Experts ( in 1967 ) on Integrated Pest Control have defined IPM ( integrated pest management ) as " A pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at below those causing economic injury. "

In 1991 Dent has defined IPM ( integrated pest management ) as " IPM is essentially a holistic approach to peat control that seeks to optimize the use od a combination of methods to manage a whole spectrum of pests as for example weeds, pathogens and insects with in a particular cropping system."
So we can say that  the coordinated application or use of a population of a pest and environmental information, possible and available pest management methods to protect the crops and avoid unwanted level of damage by the most economical means with the minimum causing bad effect to the human health, their property and environment.
So the main object of IPM is management of pest population with keeping the environment friendly.

Principles of IPM:
IPM has three principles and they are:
 First principle is adapting those management which are not harmful for soil and environment, human health and other beneficial insect.
 Second principle is appreciating biological management at first ( when pest population below the economic injury level ), than we can go for chemical management ( when pest population above the economic injury level).
Third principle is focusing on the effectiveness of natural control to minimize the harmful pest population.

Principles of IPM can be applied for anywhere there are pest population in a harmful level or may be harmful in future.

Thursday, September 5, 2013


Basic Steps Of Agricultural Farm Planning
1. Resource list:
When we are going for starting a agricultural farm we must do a list of present resources. The plan become successful when an accurate inventory is done properly.
a. land: We must give top priority when doing a resource inventory for a agricultural farm. It is a fixed resource.
b. building: We must keep the building in the list resource with their size capacity and potential uses.
c. labor: We should consider labor with the term of quantity and quality. It is difficult to measure the labor quality, but special training, experience and skill must be considered.
d. machinery: It is a fixed resource. We must cosider the size capacity and number of the machinery.
e. capital: It is most important for planning a agricultural farm.
f. management: Management means not only overall management ability but also special skill, training, strengths, weaknesses of manager. Best management brings highest yield of a farm.

2. Identifying enterprises:
On the basis of resource inventory,  a farmer must decide to make a farm of crops or livestock or others so that he can get maximum utility from his resources. We must be conscious to include all possible enterprises to avoid missing. we must consider the profit potential of the farm enterprise. We may consider custom and tradition of a locality, this custom and tradition should not be restrict the list of enterprise.

3. Estimation of co--efficient to assess the size or resource for each enterprise:

Enterprises must be well defined on small unit as for example one acre or hectare for crops and one head for livestock.  We must estimate the resource needed for each enterprise ( per unite ). The technical coefficients which a fact and become very much important to determine the maximum size of enterprise and the final enterprise combination.

4. Estimating gross margins:
We estimate the gross margin for a single unit of each enterprise.It is required for the farmer to estimate the yield for each enterprise and expected yield.

5. Developing the whole farm plan:
Identifying the most and important limiting resource and identifying those enterprises with greatest gross margin per unit of resource id the systemic procedure to whole farm planning.


principle of cropping system
Cropping system
The way or pattern in which different crop are grown or cultivated same time in a same field is known as cropping system. We can divided cropping system into two terms such as a) Mixed cropping and b) Inter cropping

Mixed cropping
Growing two or more crops in a particular land at a same time then it is called mixed cropping. Itis done in those areas where climatic hazards are common. Example: wheat with mustard or wheat with barley etc.

Advantages of mixed cropping
1. we can reduce production cost.
2. we can cheek soil erosion, weed etc.
3. it facilitate labor and employment throughout the whole year.
4. soil condition is improved by the combination of legumes and non-legumes.
5. farmer can grow different crops according ( not all times ) to his demand.
6. if any insect or disease attack one crop other crop may not attacked if they are from different family.
7. there is no possibility to fail all crops under a adverse climatic condition. frost kills only legumes, flood kills only dicotplant, drought kills monocot plants.

Principles of mixed cropping:
1. we can select legumes with non legumes. As for example gram with wheat.
2. tall crops may sown with short crops such as maize with mung.
3. if we grow deep rooted crop, there is a another option of shallow rooted crops as for example maize with potato.
4. we can grow bushy crops with erect growing crops such as sugarcane with potato.
5. crops may attack both crops if their family is same. so must select from different family.
6. we may select short duration crops with long duration crops such as sugarcane with mung.

Inter cropping:
If we grow a subsidiary crops between two widely spaced rows of the main crop with keeping the object of utilizing the space left between two rows of main crop and to produce more crops per unit area then it is called inter cropping.

Advantages of inter cropping:

1. soil nutrient of different level is used evenly.
2. the possibility of micro nutrient deficiency is reduced by leaf shedding and subsequent decomposition of leaf and other plat parts.
3. farmer gets more production in a limited area.
4. free space is utilized properly.
5. income is more by inter cropping.
6. fodder value  is high when legume is cultivated with non legume. as for example NAPIER + COWPEA - NAPIER + BERSEEM.

Principle of inter cropping:
1. we must select those crops which have no competitive effect.
2. the subsidiary crop must have short duration and faster growing habit.
3. they must have same agronomic practices.
4. erect growing crops may inter cropped with cover crop to avoid soil erosion.
5. we must not choose the subsidiary crops which pest and diseases is similar with main crop.

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Some Terminology Related to Multiple Cropping

Multiple  Cropping ( sugarcane with vegetable )
AGRO-FORESTRY: when are grown along with the agricultural crops ( annual crop ) and livestock, then it is called agroforestry. Example mango with rice.
PRECISION AGRICULTURE: It is a concept of agriculture which relying on the existence of in-field variability. Modern technologies as for example sensors, aerial image, information management tools etc are required for this agriculture. Yield of crops is predict accurately after collecting data by modern equipment.
 ALLY CROPPING: When annual crops are grown between the rows of trees or shrubs, it is called ally cropping. We can get fertilizer, mulch material and livestock feed from pruning of the trees and shrubs.
 CROPPING PATTERN: Cultivation of crops in yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops including fallow on a given  area is called cropping pattern.
 CROPPING SYSTEM: Cropping system is the cropping patterns which is used on a farm and their interaction with the resources of that farm, interaction with other farm enterprise and the available input and output technologies which indicate or determine their make up.
FARMING SYSTEM: All the elements such as people, livestock, wildlife, crops, other vegetation, the environment and the ecological, economic, social action between them which are interact as a system, is known as farming system.
MONOCULTURE: When a crop is cultivated on a particular agricultural land or crop field year after year, is known as monocultre.
 CROP ROTATION: Recurrent succession of a set of selected crops grown on a particular agricultural land for definite time of period according to a definite plan is known as crop rotation.
 COMPANION CROPS: When the different crops are sown in different rows but not mixed together, then this crops are known as companion crop to each other.
GUARD CROPS: When hardy or thorny crops remain surrounding the main crops as a guard, is called guard crops.
AUGMENTING CROPS: When different sub crops are sown for the purpose of supplement the yield of the main crop, then the sub crops are known as augmenting crops.
PARALLEL CROPPING: When two crops are grown in a same time in a particular land as parallel to each other but those crops have different growth habits, no competition and they can express their full yield potential, then it is called parallel cropping.
MULTI-STORIED CROPPING: When crops of different highs are grown at a same time in a same field is called multisoried cropping.
SYNERGISTIC CROPPING: If the yield of two crops is higher when they are cultivated on a unit area in a same time than the total yield of their pure cultivation on separate land on unit area basis then it is called synergistic cropping.

Monday, September 2, 2013

List of Agro-Ecological Zones of Bangladesh

AEZs of  Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a agricultural country and near about 80% people of Bangladesh are directly or indirectly involved with agriculture. Bangladesh is a small country but it has different land type in different area. It is a riverine country so maximum area of it's is floodplain and basin type.

We know that AEZ is the area of the nearly same ecological and soil characteristics agricultural crops production. So cropping pattern of a definite AEZ is mostly same. The homogeneity of a AEZ is more prominent in a sub region and most prominent in a unit level.

Agro-Ecological Zones of Bangladesh determined on basis of some definite characteristics and they are physiography (it is defined as soil parent materials and land forms of a particular area)
, hydrology ( it is determined on the basis of water holding capacity of soil and the water level of agricultural land ), cropping pattern ( it is done on the basis of Length of Rabi and kharif season and major and minor agricultural crops which are cultivated in a particular area ), season ( it is done on the basis of the Depth and duration of seasonal flooding in a particular area ), soil types and tidal activity. 

There are 30 Agro-Ecological Zones in Bangladesh. This 30 AEZ are sub divided into 88 agro-ecological sub region. Again these are divided into 535 agro-ecological units. The 30 AEZ of Bangladesh  are given below  - ( according to the number ) 

  15. ARIAL  BIL