Friday, December 13, 2013


BRRI dhan48
1. It is a early variety.
2. It is developed for MONGA region. Because it is drought tolerant variety.
3. It is  cultivated in Aus season.
4. It’s life span is 110 days.
5. Yield of this variety is 5.5 ton per ha.

BRRI dhan49
1. It is a fine rice like Najershail.
2. It is developed for the region where water is logged for long time. Because it is a water logging resistant variety.
3. It is  cultivated in Aman season (T. Aman variety).
4. It’s life span is 135 days.
5. Yield of this variety is 5-5.5 ton per ha.

BRRI dhan50 (Banglamoti)

1. It is an aromatic fine rice and it is better than Basmoty in quality.
2. It is developed for the region where water is logged for long time. Because it is a water logging resistant variety.
3. It is  cultivated in Boro season.
4. It’s life span is 155 days.
5. Yield of this variety is 6 ton per ha.

BRRI dhan51
1. This variety is resistant to abrupt flood.
2. This variety can survive under flood water up to 14 days.
3. It is  cultivated in Aman season(T. Aman variety).
4. It’s life span is 145-155 days.
5. Yield of this variety is 4-4.5 ton per ha.

BRRI dhan52
1. This variety is resistant to abrupt flood.
2. This variety can survive under flood water up to 14 days.
3. It is  cultivated in Aman season(T. Aman variety).
4. It’s life span is 140-150 days.
5. Yield of this variety is 4.5-5 ton per ha.

BRRI dhan53
1. This variety is a salinity tolerant variety.
2. This variety can be able to tolerate 8-10 ds/m salinity.
3. It is  cultivated in Aman season(T. Aman variety).
4. It’s life span is 125 days.
5. Yield of this variety is 5 ton per ha.

BRRI dhan54
1. This variety is a salinity tolerant variety.
2. This variety can be able to tolerate 8-10 ds/m salinity.
3. It is  cultivated in Aman season(T. Aman variety).
4. It’s life span is 135 days.
5. Yield of this variety is 5.5 ton per ha.

BRRI dhan55
1. This variety is a salinity tolerant variety.
2. This variety also  tolerant to drought and cold.
3. It is  cultivated in Aus season and also in Boro season.
4. It’s life span is 105 days in Aus season and 145 days in Boro season.
5. Yield of this variety is 4-5  ton per ha in Aus season 7 ton per ha in Boro season.

BRRI dhan56
1. It is a early variety.
2. It is developed for MONGA region. Because it is drought tolerant variety.
3. It is  cultivated in Aman season ( T. Aman variety).
4. It’s life span is 110 days.
5. Yield of this variety is 4.5-5 ton per ha.

BRRI dhan57
1. It is a early variety.
2. It is developed for MONGA region. Because it is drought tolerant variety.
3. It is  cultivated in Aman season ( T. Aman variety).
4. It’s life span is 105  days.
5. Yield of this variety is 4-4.5 ton per ha.

Source- BRRI (Manual- Adhunik Dhner Chash -2010)

Saturday, December 7, 2013

Admission Test(2014) Seat Plan Of Sher-e-Bangla AgriculturaI University

notice: 12.12.2013 SAU Admission Test of 14 Dec postponed. Date will be announced later.

Admission Test will be held on 14 December.

seat plan

Admission Test(2014) Seat Plan Of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University

Center 1. Sher-e-Bangta Agricultural University:
 Roll No. 200001 to 200106 and 100001 to 101857

Faculty of Agriculture

Ground Floor
200001 to 200028 > Biochemistry Lab
200029 to 200058 > Agri. Chemistry Lab
200059 to 200082 > Plant Pathology Lab
200083 to 200106 > Entomology Lab
100001 - 100030 > Soil Science Lab-1
100031 - 100052 > Soil Science Lab-2
100053 - 100078 > Horticulture Lab

1st Floor
100079 - 100142 > Class Room-1
100143 - 100206 > Class Room-2
100207 - 100278 > Class Room-3
100279 - 100342 > Class Room-4
100343 - 100398 > Class Room-S
100399 - 100470 > Class Room-6
100471 - 100550 > Class Room-7
100551 - 100570 > Agril Botany Lab-A
100571 - 100594 > Agril Botany Lab-B
100s95 - 100622 > GEPB Lab
100623 - 100644 > Molecular Genetics Lab
100645 - 100700 > AEIS Lab
100701 - 100740 > AEIS MS Room

2nd Floor
100741 - 100998 > Examination Hall
100999 - 101038 > Entomology MS Room
101039 - 101068 > Plant Pathology MS Room
101069 - 101108 > GEPB MS Room
101109 - 101133 > Agronomy Lab
101134 - 101163 > Horticulture MS Room
101164 - 101197 > Soil Science MS Room
101198 - 101222 > Fisheries Lab

Central Lab Building

1st Floor
101223 - 101252 > Agronomy Lab
101253 - 101277 > Entomology Lab

2nd Floor
101278 - 101303 > Microbiology Lab
101304 - 101333 > Poultry Science Lab
101334 - 101360 > Animal Nutrition Lab

3rd Ftoor
101361 - 101387 > Anatomy Lab
101388 - 101427 > Class Room-1
101428 - 101467 > Class Room-2
101468 - 101502 > Animal Production Lab

Faculty of Agribusiness

101503 - 101857 > Faculty of Agribusiness

Center 2. Mohammadpur Model School & College:
 Roll No. 101858 to 104034

1st Floor
101858 - 101897 > Room-205
101898 - 101937 > Room-206
101938 - 102003 > Room-207

2nd Floor
102004 - 102069 > Room-304
102070 - 102135 > Room-305
102136 - 102201 > Room-306
102202 - 102261 > Room-307
102262 - 102327 > Room-309

3rd Floor
102328 - 102393 > Room-401
102394 - 102459 > Room-402
102460 - 102s19 > Room-403
102520 - 102579 > Room-404
102580 - 102645 > Room-405
102646 - 102711 > Room-407
102712 - 102768 > Room-408
102769 - 102828 > Room-409
102829 - 102894 > Room-410

4th Floor
102895 - 102960 > Room-501
102961 - 103026 > Room-502
103027 - 103086 > Room-503
103087 - 103146 > Room-504
103147 - 103212 > Room-505
103213 - 103278 > Room-507
103279 - 103335 > Room-508
103336 - 103392 > Room-509
103393 - 103458 > Room-510

5th Floor
103459 - 103524 > Room-601
103525 - 103590 > Room-602
103591 - 103650 > Room-603
103651 - 103710 > Room-604
103711 - 103776 > Room-605
103777 - 103842 > Room-606
103843 - 103908 > Room-607
103909 - 103968 > Room-608
103969 - 104034 > Room-610

Center 3. Government Bangla College:
 Roll No. 104035 - 107454

Bhaban-1 (104035 - 105064)

Gnd Floor
104035 - 104114 > Room-103
104115 - 104194 > Room-104
104195 - 104274 > Room-105
104275 - 104354 > Room-107
104355 - 104434 > Room-108
104435 - 104474 > Room-109
104475 - 104514 > Bangla Dept. Seminar Room

1st Floor
104515 - 104579 > Room-115
104580 - 104644 > Room-116
104645 - 104684 > Student Common Room

2nd Floor
104685 - 104784 > Room-117
104785 - 104944 > Room-118
104945 - 105064 > Room-119 (Library)

Bhaban-2, 4, 5   (Roll No. 105065 - 107454)

Gnd Floor
105065 - 105154 > Room-201
105155 - 105244 > Room-202
105245 - 10s334 > Room-203

1st Floor

105335 - 105466 > Room-204
105467 - 105636 > Room-205

2nd Floor

105637 - 105768 > Room-206
105769 - 105938 > Room-207

3rd Floor

105939 - 106033 > Room-208

Gnd Floor

106034 - 106113 > Room-401

1st Floor

106114 - 106183 > Room-403
106184 - 106263 > Room-404

2nd Floor

106264 - 106358 > Room-405

3rd Floor

106359 - 106454 > Room-407

4th Floor

106455 - 106564 > Room-408
106565 - 106644 > Room-409

Gnd Floor

106645 - 106734 > Room-501
106735 - 106824 > Room-502
106825 - 106894 > Room-503

1st Floor

106895 - 106994 > Room-504
106995 - 107094 > Room-505

2nd Floor

107095 - 107194 > Room-507
107195 - 107294 > Room-508

3td Floor

107295 - 107454 > Room-510

Center 4. Mirpur Girls' Ideal Laboratory Institute, Mirpur-10
Roll No. 107455 to 109844

College Building

Gnd Floor
107455 - 107526 > Room-103
107527 - 107598 > Room-104
107599 - 107670 > Room-105
107671 - 107742 > Room-106
107743 - 107814 > Room-107

1st Floor
107815 - 107886 > Room-201
107887 - 107958 > Room-202
107959 - 108030 > Room-203
108031 - 108102 > Room-204

2nd Floor
108103 - 108147 > Room-301
108148 - 108195 > Room-302
108196 - 108270 > Room-303
108271 - 108342 > Room-304
108343 - 108406 > Room-305
108407 - 108471 > Room-306
108472 - 108543 > Room-307
108544 - 108615 > Room-308

3rd Floor
108616 - 108720 > Room-405

Annex Building
Roll No. 108721 - 109844

Gnd Floor
108721 - 108835 > Common Room

1st Floor
108836 - 108875 > Room-2001
108876 - 108935 > Room-2002
108936 - 108983 > Room-2003
108984 - 109031 > Room-2004
109032 - 109069 > Room-2005
109070 - 109117 > Room-2006

2nd Floor
109118 - 109180 > Room-3001
109181 - 109245 > Room-3002
109246 - 109308 > Room-3003
109309 - 109373 > Room-3004
109374 - 109436 > Room-3005
109437 - 109491 > Room-3006

3rd Floor
109492 - 109541 > Room-4001
109542 - 109s83 > Room-4003
109584 - 109621 > Room-4005

4th Floor
109622 - 109659 > Room-5001
109660 - 109719 > Room-5002
109720 - 109781 > Room-5003
109782 - 109844 > Room-5004

Center 5. Tejgaon College:
 Roll No 109845 to 115844

Monday, December 2, 2013


Origin: Origin of rice is Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent.
Species: Mainly species is present and they are Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima.
Chromosome: Rice has 24 chromosomes.
Land: For rice cultivation sandy loam to clay loam soil is required. Soil pH should be 4.5 to 7.5.
Seed rate: For broad cast rice 70-80 kg/ha and for transplanting rice  40-45 kg/ha
5oo meter square nursery bed is required for for seedling of 1 ha of land ( for transplanting rice ) .
Seedling age: For Boro rice - 45 days seedlings, for T. Aman 30days seedlings, for T.Aus 25 days seedlings.
Yield: for local variety 2.5-3 ton/ha for HYV 6-7 ton/ha
Spacing: 25cm by 15 cm is standard and 2-3 seedlings/hill for hill cultivation
Rice has special affinity to water though rice is not a hydrophyte plant.
BR3 ( Biplob) a variety of Bangladesh can grow any season of the year.
Life cycle: Life cycle of Boro rice is 135-150 days and it is a highest life cycle. Because in winter season temperature remains very low, and the rate of plants slow down.
Vitamin - A rich rice variety is golden rice.
Rice contains 7% protein.
Rice varieties developed in Bangladesh are ( from BRRI ) BR1 to BR26 except BR13 and BRRI dhan 27 to BRRI dhan 57.
Local varieties: Nizershail, Pajam, Biroy, Latishail etc.
Aromatic varieties: BRRI dhan 34, Banglamoti ( BRRI dhan 50 ), Tulsi mala, Kalizira etc.
Also Ratoon rice is grown in Bangladesh.
SRI ( system of rice intensification ): It is a special type of rice production system where 8-14 days old seedlings are transplanted in 1 seedling/hill with wide spacing.
Aus rice: BR 21, BR 24, BR 26, BRRI dhan 42, BRRI dhan 43, BRRI dhan 48.
Aman rice: BRRI dhan 49, BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan 52, BRRI dhan 53, BRRI dhan 54, BRRI Hybrid Dhan 4.
Boro rice: BRRI dhan 28, BRRI dhan 29, BRRI dhan 50, BRRI Hybrid dhan 1,BRRI Hybrid dhan2, BRRI Hybrid dhan 3.
Broadcast Aman rice or  floating Rice: Habiganj Aman 1,2,4.
The plot size of for rice nursery bed is 10m*1.25m*15cm
Gap between two adjacent beds of rice seedlings is 50cm
20 meter square area can be covered by the seedlings of 1meter square.
Urea should not be applied on standing water on field.
In low pH soil and wet land, P is less available.
If P is applied in excess amount, availability of Zn, Fe and Cu decrease.
BRRI has 9 local stations in all Bangladesh.
Yield of rice: In Bangladesh 4.01ton/ha.
In world Bangladesh is the 4th  highest Rice producing country.
IR8 is the first HYV rice variety in Bangladesh.
BRRI released 58 rice varieties. 54 are inbreed and 4 are hybrid ( up to 2011)
BRRI has introduced Drum Seeder, BRRI weeder, BRRI open drum thresher, BRRI dryer, BRRI power winnower.
Cold stress, heat stress, drought stormy wind are the causes of chuffiness of rice seed.

Monday, November 4, 2013

Role Of Corn Or Maize As A Disease Preventing Cereal

1. Corn or maize provides two types of dietary fiber and they are soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber.
2. Dietary fiber is very helpful for us. Because it helps us to reduce blood cholesterol levels and by this way the risk of heart diseases is reduced.
3. The insoluble fiber prevent cholesterol from being absorbed into the bloodstream.
4. Insoluble fiber also helps to prevent constipation and maintain regularity.
5. The risk for hemorrhoids also reduced by  Insoluble fiber.
6. Risk of Type 2 diabetes also reduced if we take Dietary fiber from fruits or vegetables or grains like maize.
7. It has proved that if we intake high amount of lutein and zeaxanthin there is a possibility of significant reduction of the risk of a chronic eye diseases like macular degeneration.
8. Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is also a problem for the aged persons because it may to lead cause of legal blindness among the elderly and it has no cure. lutein and zeaxanthin plays a vital role for preventing this Age-related mascular degeneration (ARMD) disease.
9. Lutein and zeaxanthin also helpful for or eyes. Researchers believe that Lutein and zeaxanthin are the powerful antioxidants that protect the clear proteins in the lens ( in eyes ) from undergoing the oxidation. In this way Lutein and zeaxanthin protect our lens from becoming  cloudy.
10. Hardening of the arteries is one of the cause of  heart attack and stroke. Some research results suggest that lutein is active to prevent hardening of the arteries. 
11. Maize contains beta-cryptoxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin is known as cousin of vitamin A.
12. Thiamin (vitamin B1) that act as a helper to convert carbohydrates of body cells into energy. Maize is a Thiamin (vitamin B1).
13. Thiamin (vitamin B1) also a important substance for the proper functioning of the nervous system, heart and muscles of our body.

Sunday, October 27, 2013

New Soil Testing Kit (SoilDoc) Has Developed for Third World Countries

New soil testing kit has developed by researchers of Columbia University and University of Maryland. The name of this soil testing kit is SoilDoc.  This New soil testing kit is developed for farmers in third world countries. This kit has designed with battery-operated instruments and other safe materials so that agricultural extension agents can handle it in the field easily. By this kit agricultural extension agents can test nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and potassium of the soil, as well as active organic matter, and certain soil physical limitations. The primary results of the soil tests are sent by mobile phone to a particular website. After performing calculations necessary doses are delivered back by the website through that mobile phone to the extension agent or farmers.

A  soil scientist named Ray Weil, PhD worked in Africa for several years.  This kit is the culmination of his work of several years. He worked under a project in some of the poorest areas of Africa.  At first he was working with common soil testing items. Soon he realized that  he needed more.  After returning to USA he found that, those items used for testing home aquariums are also work for soil tests with good results. Upon returning to Africa, he used this items in Africa. His colleague scientist Pedro Sanchez suggested that Weil create a product around his homemade kit. Then Pedro Sanchez worked on it. Recently Lydiah Gatere (A post-doctoral researcher at Sanchez's Center ) has contributed to the SoilDoc product.

A presentation will held about this soil testing kit on Monday, Nov. 4, 2013 at 2:45 PM in Tampa, Florida. The title of the presentation is "Field Kit Soil Tests to Assess Acidity, N, P, S and K Fertility in Kenyan Soils". Gatere will present it. The presentation is part of the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and the Soil Science Society of America Annual Meetings, Nov. 3-6 in Tampa, Florida. The theme of this year's conference is "Water, Food, Energy, & Innovation for a Sustainable World".

Wednesday, October 23, 2013

Packets Of Rice Should Be Made Of Jute: Decided By Bangladesh Government

jute made bag

jute made sack
From 1st January, 2014 plastic made bags and sacks are banned for packaging rice. Instead of plastic bags jute-made bags must used. Bangladesh government has decided it at 26 September, 2013.  Remaining plastic bags must be utilized before December of this year.
Owners of jute mils of different areas of Bangladesh have welcomed this decision of Bangladesh Government because small jute-mils of Bangladesh will get animation now.  Jute-mils owners say that they are producing two types jute-made bags one is export quality bag which production cost is 60 to 70 taka and other type is for fulfillment of domestic demand of Bangladesh which production cost is  42 to 45 taka. On the other hand same carrying capable plastic bags are sold at 15 taka in markets. This is the reason why rice sellers and rice mil owners are using plastic bags instead of jute-made bags.

According to Bangladesh Jute Mils Corporation ( BJMC ) and Bangladesh Jute Mils Association (BJMA) 50 to 60 crore jute bags are produced in Bangladesh per year. BJMC is producing 38 crore jute-bags in year. Every year Bangladesh needs 50 to 55 crore bags for packaging cereals, fertilizers and sugarcane.

There are 40 jute mils in the greater Rangpur, Dinajpur amd Bogra districts of Bangladesh. Farmers and jute-mil owners of that area are now happy.

This news has published in PROTHOM-ALO ( 21.10.2013 )

Jute and Bangladesh
jute is known as golden fiber of Bangladesh. Bangladesh produces the best quality jute in world.

Why jute made bag is best rather than plastic made bag?
Plastics are not biodegradable. Dumping of plastics in soil is causing pollution. So plastic and plastic made bags are not Eco-friendly.
Om the other hand jute is biodegradable and decomposed in soil. Dumping of jute does not cause any hazard in environment. So jute made bags are Eco-friendly.
This the main reason why Bangladesh Government want to replace the plastic made bags by jute made bags though production cost of plastic bags is less.

Saturday, October 5, 2013

Insect Pest Of Rice: Rice Leaf Folder Or Rice Leaf Roller

1. larva in action   2. adult rice leaf roller moth
a leaf roll
Rice leaf folder or roller  is considered one of the major harmful insect pest of rice. It is common in maximum rice growing are. It’s scientific name is Cnaphalocrosis medinalis and this insect belongs to the family Pyralidae of Lepidoptera order. These insects do harm when they are at larvae stage. They do harm by rolling leaf and reducing photosynthesis area.

Nature of Damage:
The destructive stage of this insect is the larval stage. At this stage they fold the leaves longitudinally before feeding. They tie the leaf margins with the threadlike silk. They feed the green mesophyll of leaf inside the folded leaf. They feed by scraping. At first and second instar larvae feed within the slightly folded areas of leaf. At late second instar feed and roll up the maximum area of a leaf . There is one larva in one leaf. After feeding one leaf, larva moves to another leaf. In this way one larva can damage a number of leaves. Feeding reduce the photosynthesis area of leaves. So vegetative growth and finally yield is hampered. Yield loss is maximum when flag leaf is damaged.

Control Measure:
1. Though cultural control or method is a effective method, it reduces the population of rice leaf folder or roller but not eliminate the insect totally.
a. Rice leaf roller in takes shelter at grasses and weeds during off season and continue  their life cycle. So we must clean the surroundings of rice field area or we can manage weeds or grasses.
b. Slit and judicious use of N fertilizer is needed.
c. Hand picking of the larvae should be done.
d. Ratooning of rice crop should be avoided. Because these insects will increase their population in ratoon crops of rice.
e. Stubble of rice crops should be avoided.
2. Mechanical control is an effective method to control the rice leaf roller moths. It is suggested by the agriculturist because this method does not pollute the environment as the chemical method does.
We can capture adult moths by light trapping to reduce the population of this harmful insect in our rice fields.
3. Resistant variety cultivation also appreciated.
4. Biological control is best to control rice leaf roller insects. Biological control is the method of controlling an insect population by it’s natural enemy or predator or parasites.
a. Eggs of the rice leaf roller is parasitized by Trichogramma sp. So we may introduce Trichogramma sp. In our rice field to control rice leaf roller when they lay eggs.
b. Larvae of the rice leaf roller is parasitized by Xanthopimla emaculata. So we may introduce Xanthopimla emaculata in our rice field to control rice leaf roller when they are in larval stage.
3. Pheidole sp. ( a sp.of ant ) is a predator of the caterpillars of rice leaf roller moths.
5. Chemical control is not appreciated by scientists and agriculturists. Because chemicals used in crop fields pollute our environment in many ways, do harm to our health and wild lives. This control method is our last step to control the insects when there is a possibility of reducing the yield in huge amount.
Spraying of any following insecticides at economic threshold level of 10% damage leaves:
Fenitrothion at the dose of 454 ml per acre area, Malathion at the rate of 404 ml per acre area, Carbaryl at the rate of 688 g per acre area, Cypermethrin at the rate of 202 ml per acre area.

Friday, October 4, 2013

Insect Pest Of Rice: Rice Hispa

symptoms of infested field
rice hispa

Rice Hispa ( Scientific name is Dicladispa armigera ) is major insect pest of rice. Rice hispa belongs to the Chrysomelidae family of Coleoptera order. Both adults and grubs are destructive to rice crops. Mainly leaf blade of rice plants are damaged by them. By this way photosynthesis is hampered and yield is reduced.

Nature of Damage:
The upper surface of leaf of rice plants is scraped by the adult insects. Sometimes it is seen that only lower epidermis of the leaves remains to eat! So many white streaks that are parallel to the midrib are appeared at the damage areas. Tunnels are made between two epidermal layers by grubs. By this way irregular translucent white patches are created by the grubs. These translucent white patches stared from the tips of the leaves to the base of the leaf blades. Leaves becomes whitish and finally dry off if severe infestation is occurred. So the photosynthesis area of plants is reduced and plants become stunted due to lack of foods. The number of grains is reduced and grains are not well filled. 

Control measures:
1. Cultural control is good control measures for rice hispa.
a. In off season rice hispa feed and breed on the grasses or weeds near the rice fields. So must manage the weeds that are present in farm or rice fields.
b. Ratooning of rice plants must be avoided and stubble should be uprooted so that rice hispa cannot take shelter during off seasons.
c. Optimum dose of N fertilizer should be applied.
d. Early varieties may be cultivated to avoid rice hispa buildup.
e. Tip of the leaves should be pick out when rice hispa are seen on the leaf tips.
f. Infested leaves must be removed until plants go to booting stage.
g. During transplanting infested leaves of seedlings must be removed.
2. Resistant varieties must be cultivated.
3. Biological control of insects or pests are appreciated at first than chemical control.
a. Many ichneumonid wasps and braconid wasps are parasitoids of the larvae of rice hispa. So we may increase the population of these parasitoids in rice fields.
b.  Rhinocoris fuscipes is a predator of adult rice  hispa. So we may consider this predator to control rice hispa.
4. Chemical control is always discourage by scientist and agriculturist. If we manage our fields properly, chemical control is not needed. We may go for chemical control when severe attack is happened. We can apply Fenitrothion at the rate of 454ml per acre, Dimethoate at the rate of 454 ml per acre and carbaryl at the rate of 688g per acre.

Insect Pest Of Rice: Rice Bug

Rice Bug is one of the most economically important insect pests of the world. In rice producing countries is one of the major problems. That means rice bug is very common pest of rice. Scientific name of the rice bug is Leptocorisa acuta. This insect belongs to the family named Coreidae of Hemiptera order.

This harmful stage or destructive stage of this insect is not only the adult stage but also nymphs stage. Most of the damages are done by this insect when rice grains are at milky stage. Rice bug  sucks milk of the grains and for this reason rice grains remain unfilled.

Nature Of damage:
Nymphs and the adult bus feed on endosperm of the developing grains of rice.  Growing nymphs are active feeders than adult insect but adult rice bugs do more damage than nymphs of this insects. Because adult rice bugs remain more times on the grains and feed there for a long times than nymphs. They attack grains when grains are at milking stages. But they remain on the grains from milking stage to ripening stage. Nymphs and adults insert their proboscises at the point of lemma and palea ( where lemma and palea meet ).  So characteristic symptoms that brown spots are seen on the grains. As adult bugs suck the milk of grains, the grains remains unfilled and at later panicles are shriveled. Infested straw has an off-flavor that why cattle do not want to eat that straw.  Grains that are partially damaged by bugs, has also as off flavor and these grains are not cooked.
A Rice bug on grains
Damaged Grains

Control Measures:
When we are going for rice cultivation, at first we must consider preventive measure to control the insects and diseases. We must give priority to cultural control and biological control than chemical control. Because chemicals do harm to our environment where biological control is eco friendly. We can practice chemical control to save our crops when severe attack has done by rice bugs.
1. Cultural control
  Rice bugs feed on different grasses near the crop fields and they also breed on these grasses during  the off-season. So or first target is to uproot these unnecessary grasses.
2. Mechanical control
  We can use light traps, sticky traps and other traps to capture adult insects.
3. Use of resistant variety is effective.
4. Biological control
  Gryon nixoni ( small scelionid wasps) is an egg parasitoids of the rice bug. So we can apply this egg parasitoids in our rice field to control rice bugs.
  Meadow grasshoppers ( Conocephalus longipennis ) are feed on rice bug’s egg. So it is a good idea that if we increase the population of Meadow grasshoppers in our rice fields, Meadow grasshopper will feed eggs of bugs and the population of rice bugs will decrease rapidly.
   Many spiders such as Tetragnatha javana, Neoscona theisi prey on nymphs. So we may introduce these type spiders to our rice fields to control rice bugs.
5. Chemical control is  our last option to control rice bug.
  Carbaryl 5% and Malathion 5% are very effective against rice bugs. We may apply this insecticides @ 25 kg per ha as dust to control insects. We must not use chemicals indiscriminately because chemicals are very harmful for human life, wild life as well as our beautiful environment .

Wednesday, October 2, 2013

Insect Pest Of Rice: Rice Stem Borer

Rice stem borer is a very common insect pest in world, specially in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh regions. Yield reduces due to attack of this insect.
There are mainly three stem borer of rice. They are a) Rice yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas), b) Dark headed stem borer ( Chilo polychrysus ) and c) Pink headed stem borer (Sesamia inferens ).
All of them are belong to the Lepidoptera order and Pyralidae family.  At larvae stage they attack the stem of rice.

Nature of Damage:
Only the caterpillar stage of these insects are very destructive in rice field. Adult insects do not harm in crop field. Adult insects hatch eggs on the leaf sheaths and a week after hatching larvae become active for it's destructive activities. From the leaf sheaths larvae moves toward the stems and bore the stems. When larvae stay into the pith, they feed on the inner surface of the stem wall ( mainly soft tissue of the pith ). This feed is stared from the base to the apical part of the plants. The central leaf whorl turns into brownish color and dries off rapidly, if larvae attack at the vegetative stage of  rice plants. But the leaves of the plant remain healthy. This symptom is called dead heart symptom. Tillers can not bear panicles and become dry. Sometimes panicles emerge but do not produce grains on the top of it. As the panicles are empty, they become whitish in color and remain in straight. This symptom is very conspicuous in the rice field. This symptom is known as white heads symptom.
whiteheads symptom
A larvae inside the stem

Control Measure:
1) Control by cultural practices
a) We have to remove and destroy all the stubble after harvesting the crops.
b) After ploughing a flood irrigation should be given to kill the larvae.
c) Tips of the seedlings should be clipped if eggs are seen on the leaf of seedlings.
d) Application of excess amount of N fertilizer should be avoided.
e) If we apply slag into the field, it will increase the silica into the plans and this will make plants more resistant against rice stem borer.
2) resistant variety ( BR-3 / Biplob ) should be cultivated.
3) Mechanical control
We may use light trap to capture adult moth in the rice field.
4) Biological control
a) Telenomus, Tetrastichus and Trichogramma are the egg parasitoids of stem borer of rice. So we may import these egg parasitoids into the rice fields.
b) Longhorn grasshopper feeds on egg masses of the stem borer, Coccinellid beetles and carabid beetle feed on the larvae of the stem borer.
c) Spider can attack the adult moth ( rice stem borer ) by trapping them in webs.
d) At day time dragonflies ans birds are the predator of rice stem borer.
5) chemical control
As the larvae remain inside the stem, so systemic insecticide is effective to kill the larvae. Monocrotophos may apply 607ml per acre of land, Diazinon may apply 688 ml per acre, Fenitrothion may apply 454 ml per acre, carbofuran may apply 6.8 kg per acre.

Tuesday, October 1, 2013

Saline Soils In Bangladesh

In saline soil excess amount of salts are present. Mainly NaCl is present in high amount. Salts of Mg, K, Ca also present in saline soil at low concentration. A white crust of salts is deposited on the surface of soil due to salinity. So other name of saline soil is white alkali. 

Characteristics of saline soil:
Normally pH remains below 8.5 ( 7.0 to 8.5 ) in saline soil. Electrical  conductivity values remain greater than 4dS/m. In saline soil exchangeable sodium percentage is less than 15 at 250 c.  The surface of coastal soils are slightly to moderately saline and sub-surface layers and substrata of the soils are highly saline.

The process by which salts are accumulated in the soils is known as salinisation.  Flooding of coastal water is the main cause of salinisation.  There are some others factors such as a) tidal action, b) depth of the ground water table and salt deposits, c) the nature of the soils, d) the effect of the river system and their discharges, e) precipitation and f) the slope of the ground and the proximity to drainage channels.

Causes  of  salinity:
1. Poor drainage system of agricultural lands and seepage of saline water  to the lands.
2. Irrigation with the high salt containing water  to the agricultural fields.
3. Continuous  shrimp cultivation in agricultural land is a major cause of introducing  salt in soils.
4. High water table with high salt concentration in coastal area increases the possibility of introduction of saline water in coastal area.
5. High temperature and low rainfall also increase the salinity in saline soils.
6. Weathering  of salt containing  parent materials  is one of the major cause of the increasing salinity in soils.
7. Tidal flooding is the main cause of introduction of saline water.
8. In dry season, capillary movement of  saline water ( upward ) causes salinity in soils.

Location of saline soil:
More than 2.9 ha land of Bangladesh is affected by saline water. Every year it is increasing. Chittagong, Barishal, Noakhali, Khulna and Patuakhali  districts are mostly affected by saline water.
The AEZs that are affected by saline water are
1. Gangas Tidal Floodplain  ( AEZ 13 )
2. Young  Meghna Estuarine Floodplain ( AEZ 18 )
3. Chittagong Coastal Plain ( AEZ 23 )
4. St Martin’s Coral Island (AEZ 24 )

Constrains to crop productions:
1. Water use efficiency  is reduced.
2. Occurrence of organic soil and extreme acid sulphate soil is one of the major constrains.
3. It reduces nitrate absorption.
4. In dry season that means in Robi season crop cultivation is hampered.
5. There is lack of fresh surface and ground water.
6. It inhibits germination of crop seeds.
7. Breakdown of soil aggregates is occurred.
8. Also ionic imbalance in soil is occurred.

Management of saline soil for crop production:
1. Flooding with fresh water is very effective though it is sometimes difficult.
2. Fertilizers should be applied in balance.
3. Irrigation must be done before sowing seeds or transplanting.
4. Higher seed rate and close planting is a effective practice against saline soils.
5. We have building embankment to control saline water in coastal area.
6. Application of organic matter and green manure during dry season.
7. Reducing shrimp cultivation in coastal area.
8. Cultivating  salt tolerant crops.

Result of salinity:
1. Growth of plants and yield reduced detrimentally.
2. Degradation of land is occurred.
3. The quality of water is reduced.
4. Infrastructures near the coastal  area or saline soil are damaged rapidly than non coastal area.

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Factors Of Cropping Pattern Of A Locality

Cropping pattern of different locality are depend on some factors of that locality. Factors are categorized into some broad term such as Weather, Soil, Social condition, Production inputs and price, Mechanization facilities, Government policy and Natural calamities.

Weather: humidity, day length, rainfall, temperature are main points or factors of cropping pattern.
Humidity: Some crops like tea grow well in high humidity. So humidity is a factor.
Day length: Potato grows well in short day length where wheat, onion need long day length.
Rainfall: Tea needs heavy rainfall where barley and chickpea grow in arid climate.
Temperature: In temperate countries wheat grows well where in sub tropical area rice is grows well.

Soil: Soil conditions such as soil pH, salinity, ground water table, soil topography and soil texture are also determinants of cropping pattern.
Soil pH: tea grows in acidic soil where coconut needs alkaline soil to grow well.
Salinity: Crops are not grow well in saline soil. So we need to develop saline tolerant varieties for saline area. But few crops like tomatoes and broccoli may grow in moderately saline water.
Ground water table: Shallow rooted crops do not grow well in that area where water table is low.
Soil topography: Sesame, pineapple, zinger, turmeric etc grows well in those land which are not under flood water but pulses, oil seeds grows well in those land where little flood water comes usually.
Soil texture: Sweet potato, groundnut, water melon grows well in sandy land but rice needs clay or sandy clay soil.
Soil water : rice needs more soil water than any other crops.

Social condition: Some social conditions are determinants of cropping pattern. Mainly these are problem of under developed and developing countries.
Financial condition: Poor farmer can not grow expensive crops like sugarcane, Banana etc. Because these crops need high initial cost.
Transport problem: Poor communication facility is the major determinants in a locality.
Market price: Good market price influence the farmer to grow crops.
Food habit: The crops that are not present in the food habit in a locality, are not grown at that locality.
Storage facility: Where there are no storage facility, farmers of that locality usually do not grow vegetables.
Attitude of farmer: Some times farmers do not want to adopt modern technology.

Production inputs:It is the direct regulator of cropping pattern of region. If there is no available inputs, farmer will not go for production.

Mechanization facilities: If there is no extraction facility, farmer will not cultivate oil seeds, if there is no shelling facility farmer will not go for corn cultivation.

Government policy: Good government policy, crop insurance and facility influence farmer to grow a particular crop of a certain area.
Natural calamity: Cyclone, flood etc are the factors of coastal area and drought is factor of arid region.

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Classification of Agricultural farming System

There are some ways to classify the farming system of agriculture. We can classify this type farming on the basis of agricultural land availability, on the basis of farm enterprise, on the basis of ownership of the area of the farming land, on the basis of enterprise number and on he basis of availability of water of the farming area.

On the basis of agricultural land availability we can classify the agricultural farming system into two system and they are extensive farming system and intensive farming system.
when more land is available for cultivation and by increasing the cultivation area we produce more crops and yield, then it is called extensive farming system. when in a farm intensive care is taken for intensive cropping and increasing production in a unit area by introducing modern technologies and other facilities then it is called intensive farming system.

On the basis of farm enterprise we can classify the agricultural farming system into two category such as specialized farming system and diversified farming system.
If there is an enterprise in a farm and that farm is done specially for that enterprise, this type farm is known as specialized farming system. As for example we can cultivation of wheat, cultivation of maize, cultivation of rice etc. If there are two or more crops or enterprises in diversified condition in a farm then this farming is called diversified farming system. Mixed cropping is a good example of diversified farming system.

On the basis of the ownership of the area of the farming land we can classify farming system into three group. They are estate farming system, co-operative farming system, collective farming system. When government is the owner of the farming land, it is called estate farming system. when a group of farmer create a farm by co-operative and cultivate together, share the products among themselves on the basis of their own land then it is known as co-operative farming system. when government has done a farm on the land of some farmers and the outputs are distributed among the farmers as par the decision of government then this type farming is known as collective farming system.

On the basis of enterprise number we can classify the farming system into two category such as monofarming system and mixed farming system. If a farm has only one enterprise then it is known as monofarming system. Such as fisheries, poultry,crop or livestock farming. If there are two or more enterprise in a farm then it is known as mixed farming. As for example maize with potato, crops with fisheries etc.

On the basis of availability of water in a farm area we can classify farms into rainfed farming system and irrigated farming system. If a farm is totally depend on rainfall then this type farming is known as rainfed farming system. If crop cultivation by irrigated water then this type farming system is known as irrigated farming system.

Sunday, September 8, 2013

Integrated Pest Management In agriculture

In short we can say Integrated Pest Management is the way of pest management without doing harm the environment.
Entomological Society of America and FAO Panel of Experts ( in 1967 ) on Integrated Pest Control have defined IPM ( integrated pest management ) as " A pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at below those causing economic injury. "

In 1991 Dent has defined IPM ( integrated pest management ) as " IPM is essentially a holistic approach to peat control that seeks to optimize the use od a combination of methods to manage a whole spectrum of pests as for example weeds, pathogens and insects with in a particular cropping system."
So we can say that  the coordinated application or use of a population of a pest and environmental information, possible and available pest management methods to protect the crops and avoid unwanted level of damage by the most economical means with the minimum causing bad effect to the human health, their property and environment.
So the main object of IPM is management of pest population with keeping the environment friendly.

Principles of IPM:
IPM has three principles and they are:
 First principle is adapting those management which are not harmful for soil and environment, human health and other beneficial insect.
 Second principle is appreciating biological management at first ( when pest population below the economic injury level ), than we can go for chemical management ( when pest population above the economic injury level).
Third principle is focusing on the effectiveness of natural control to minimize the harmful pest population.

Principles of IPM can be applied for anywhere there are pest population in a harmful level or may be harmful in future.

Thursday, September 5, 2013


Basic Steps Of Agricultural Farm Planning
1. Resource list:
When we are going for starting a agricultural farm we must do a list of present resources. The plan become successful when an accurate inventory is done properly.
a. land: We must give top priority when doing a resource inventory for a agricultural farm. It is a fixed resource.
b. building: We must keep the building in the list resource with their size capacity and potential uses.
c. labor: We should consider labor with the term of quantity and quality. It is difficult to measure the labor quality, but special training, experience and skill must be considered.
d. machinery: It is a fixed resource. We must cosider the size capacity and number of the machinery.
e. capital: It is most important for planning a agricultural farm.
f. management: Management means not only overall management ability but also special skill, training, strengths, weaknesses of manager. Best management brings highest yield of a farm.

2. Identifying enterprises:
On the basis of resource inventory,  a farmer must decide to make a farm of crops or livestock or others so that he can get maximum utility from his resources. We must be conscious to include all possible enterprises to avoid missing. we must consider the profit potential of the farm enterprise. We may consider custom and tradition of a locality, this custom and tradition should not be restrict the list of enterprise.

3. Estimation of co--efficient to assess the size or resource for each enterprise:

Enterprises must be well defined on small unit as for example one acre or hectare for crops and one head for livestock.  We must estimate the resource needed for each enterprise ( per unite ). The technical coefficients which a fact and become very much important to determine the maximum size of enterprise and the final enterprise combination.

4. Estimating gross margins:
We estimate the gross margin for a single unit of each enterprise.It is required for the farmer to estimate the yield for each enterprise and expected yield.

5. Developing the whole farm plan:
Identifying the most and important limiting resource and identifying those enterprises with greatest gross margin per unit of resource id the systemic procedure to whole farm planning.


principle of cropping system
Cropping system
The way or pattern in which different crop are grown or cultivated same time in a same field is known as cropping system. We can divided cropping system into two terms such as a) Mixed cropping and b) Inter cropping

Mixed cropping
Growing two or more crops in a particular land at a same time then it is called mixed cropping. Itis done in those areas where climatic hazards are common. Example: wheat with mustard or wheat with barley etc.

Advantages of mixed cropping
1. we can reduce production cost.
2. we can cheek soil erosion, weed etc.
3. it facilitate labor and employment throughout the whole year.
4. soil condition is improved by the combination of legumes and non-legumes.
5. farmer can grow different crops according ( not all times ) to his demand.
6. if any insect or disease attack one crop other crop may not attacked if they are from different family.
7. there is no possibility to fail all crops under a adverse climatic condition. frost kills only legumes, flood kills only dicotplant, drought kills monocot plants.

Principles of mixed cropping:
1. we can select legumes with non legumes. As for example gram with wheat.
2. tall crops may sown with short crops such as maize with mung.
3. if we grow deep rooted crop, there is a another option of shallow rooted crops as for example maize with potato.
4. we can grow bushy crops with erect growing crops such as sugarcane with potato.
5. crops may attack both crops if their family is same. so must select from different family.
6. we may select short duration crops with long duration crops such as sugarcane with mung.

Inter cropping:
If we grow a subsidiary crops between two widely spaced rows of the main crop with keeping the object of utilizing the space left between two rows of main crop and to produce more crops per unit area then it is called inter cropping.

Advantages of inter cropping:

1. soil nutrient of different level is used evenly.
2. the possibility of micro nutrient deficiency is reduced by leaf shedding and subsequent decomposition of leaf and other plat parts.
3. farmer gets more production in a limited area.
4. free space is utilized properly.
5. income is more by inter cropping.
6. fodder value  is high when legume is cultivated with non legume. as for example NAPIER + COWPEA - NAPIER + BERSEEM.

Principle of inter cropping:
1. we must select those crops which have no competitive effect.
2. the subsidiary crop must have short duration and faster growing habit.
3. they must have same agronomic practices.
4. erect growing crops may inter cropped with cover crop to avoid soil erosion.
5. we must not choose the subsidiary crops which pest and diseases is similar with main crop.

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Some Terminology Related to Multiple Cropping

Multiple  Cropping ( sugarcane with vegetable )
AGRO-FORESTRY: when are grown along with the agricultural crops ( annual crop ) and livestock, then it is called agroforestry. Example mango with rice.
PRECISION AGRICULTURE: It is a concept of agriculture which relying on the existence of in-field variability. Modern technologies as for example sensors, aerial image, information management tools etc are required for this agriculture. Yield of crops is predict accurately after collecting data by modern equipment.
 ALLY CROPPING: When annual crops are grown between the rows of trees or shrubs, it is called ally cropping. We can get fertilizer, mulch material and livestock feed from pruning of the trees and shrubs.
 CROPPING PATTERN: Cultivation of crops in yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops including fallow on a given  area is called cropping pattern.
 CROPPING SYSTEM: Cropping system is the cropping patterns which is used on a farm and their interaction with the resources of that farm, interaction with other farm enterprise and the available input and output technologies which indicate or determine their make up.
FARMING SYSTEM: All the elements such as people, livestock, wildlife, crops, other vegetation, the environment and the ecological, economic, social action between them which are interact as a system, is known as farming system.
MONOCULTURE: When a crop is cultivated on a particular agricultural land or crop field year after year, is known as monocultre.
 CROP ROTATION: Recurrent succession of a set of selected crops grown on a particular agricultural land for definite time of period according to a definite plan is known as crop rotation.
 COMPANION CROPS: When the different crops are sown in different rows but not mixed together, then this crops are known as companion crop to each other.
GUARD CROPS: When hardy or thorny crops remain surrounding the main crops as a guard, is called guard crops.
AUGMENTING CROPS: When different sub crops are sown for the purpose of supplement the yield of the main crop, then the sub crops are known as augmenting crops.
PARALLEL CROPPING: When two crops are grown in a same time in a particular land as parallel to each other but those crops have different growth habits, no competition and they can express their full yield potential, then it is called parallel cropping.
MULTI-STORIED CROPPING: When crops of different highs are grown at a same time in a same field is called multisoried cropping.
SYNERGISTIC CROPPING: If the yield of two crops is higher when they are cultivated on a unit area in a same time than the total yield of their pure cultivation on separate land on unit area basis then it is called synergistic cropping.

Monday, September 2, 2013

List of Agro-Ecological Zones of Bangladesh

AEZs of  Bangladesh
Bangladesh is a agricultural country and near about 80% people of Bangladesh are directly or indirectly involved with agriculture. Bangladesh is a small country but it has different land type in different area. It is a riverine country so maximum area of it's is floodplain and basin type.

We know that AEZ is the area of the nearly same ecological and soil characteristics agricultural crops production. So cropping pattern of a definite AEZ is mostly same. The homogeneity of a AEZ is more prominent in a sub region and most prominent in a unit level.

Agro-Ecological Zones of Bangladesh determined on basis of some definite characteristics and they are physiography (it is defined as soil parent materials and land forms of a particular area)
, hydrology ( it is determined on the basis of water holding capacity of soil and the water level of agricultural land ), cropping pattern ( it is done on the basis of Length of Rabi and kharif season and major and minor agricultural crops which are cultivated in a particular area ), season ( it is done on the basis of the Depth and duration of seasonal flooding in a particular area ), soil types and tidal activity. 

There are 30 Agro-Ecological Zones in Bangladesh. This 30 AEZ are sub divided into 88 agro-ecological sub region. Again these are divided into 535 agro-ecological units. The 30 AEZ of Bangladesh  are given below  - ( according to the number ) 

  15. ARIAL  BIL

Wednesday, August 21, 2013


Mustard is a agricultural crop which is popular for it's oil. From ancient time mustard oil is used as a medicine in different parts of world. Now mustard is cultivated in many countries such as Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Croatia, Colombia, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Hungary, India,Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States. Mainly mustard is used for oil. Mustard also used as a popular addition to hot dogs,sandwiches, hamburgers, and salads.
Mustard seeds are very beneficial for our health. Because-
1. Mustard contains anti-oxidants which are specialy needed for body to keep us healthy.Minerals and vitamins are also present in mustard.
2. We also get huge amount of calories from mustard. 100 g of seeds of mustard contains 508 calories.

3. Mustard also contains essential oils, dietary fiber, quality proteins.
4. We get stigmasterol, sitosterol, brassicasterol, avenasterol and campesterol which are important sterols for our body to keep us in good health.
5. We also get palmitic acids, eicosenoic, myrosin, oleic, erucic and sinigrin which are important glucosinolate and fatty acids for our health.
6. Essential B-complex vitamins such as  pyridoxine (vitaminB-6), thiamin, folates, pantothenic acid, riboflavin and niacin are also available in mustard. B-complex vitamins are essential for regulating body metabolism, enzyme synthesis in our body and keep nervous system in good work.
7. Mustard are very helpful to keep blood cholesterol at lower level because mustard has niacin (vitamin B-3) which is a portion of essential nicotinamide co-enzymes.
8. Mustard is a good source of carotenoid and flavonoid antioxidants such as lutein, zea-xanthin, and carotenes.
9. Vitamin E a compund which hold our youthness is available in mustard. This vitamin E also act as a good lipid soluble bio-substance. This vitamin-E protect our skin and keep the integrity of cell membrane of mucus membranes in good condition by preventing harmful oxygen-free radicals.
10. Mustard contains Cu and Fe which are essential for production of red blood cells .

Wednesday, July 10, 2013

Damage and Biological Management Of Aphids in Mustard

Aphid: Lipaphis erysimi
Aphid is one of the most damaging insect pest and this pest mat reduce the yield 50 to 80%. Both adults and nymphs are harmful. They suck cell sap from all plant parts. Week plant, curled leaves, hindering of flowers and pod formation are the characteristic symptoms of aphid attack. Infested pod become off shape and reduced in size. So oil percentage of the seeds is less.

We can reduce aphid infestation in mustard crop 50-70% if we do early sowing of Tori-7 variety.
In every time we must give priority to the biological control of insect rather than chemical control of insect to keep our environment pollution free. Also another point which support biological control of insect that is '' sometimes residual of the insecticide or pesticide remain into agricultural crops and this residual chemicals are not good for our health. Neem seed kernel extract or neem oil are very good to control aphids and neem seed kernel are used fro this purpose from ancient time. If we spray  two times neem seed kernel extract or neem oil @ 7 day interval, it will be a effective control measure of aphids in mustard crop field.
LADYBIRD beetle is a predator of aphids. So we can conserve LADYBIRD beetle mustard field to control aphids.
Formulation neem seed kernel extract: At first we have to take 50gm crushed neem seed kernel, then it should be added with 1L water to make a formulation.
Formulation of neem oil: At first we have to take 4 ml neem oil, then it should be added with 2 g detergent/L of water to make a formulation.
Neem seed kernel is better than neem oil.

In case severe infestation we can use chemicals ( insecticide ) such as  Malathion 57EC or other insecticide for aphids control. We must take suggestion of government agricultural officer before applying any chemicals in agricultural crop fields.
But we must remember that chemical is harmful for our health and environment.

Wednesday, March 20, 2013

Role Of CARROTS AS A Source Of Vitamin A

Carrots are very popular agricultural crop and it is cultivated widely in all countries of the world. Carrot consumed as raw or after cooking.
Role Of CARROTS AS A Source Of Vitamin A
Carrot is a very good source of vitamin a. When we eat carrot in raw form, it release only 3% bita carotene. But we can increased it up to 39% by processing carrots. Usually by pulping, cooking and adding cooking oil, we can increased it bita carotene in available form up to 39%. Also we can do chopping, frying, steaming for releasing up to 39%. This bita carotene is uptaken in human body as vitamin A. But if we eat excessive amount of carrot it causes little harmful to us. Mainly carotenosis is happened. It means skin turns into orange color. An urban legend says if we eat lot of carrot , it will increase our vision power at night. It is says that during second world war, British gunners  ate lot of carrot to increase their eye power so that they can shoot down German planes.

Nutrient present in carrot :  ***
Carrot, raw Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy     173 kJ (41 kcal)
Carbohydrates     9 g
- Sugars     5 g
- Dietary fibre     3 g
Fat     0.2 g
Protein     1 g
Vitamin A equiv.     835 μg (104%)
- beta-carotene     8285 μg (77%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin     256 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)     0.04 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)     0.05 mg (4%)
Niacin (vit. B3)     0.9 mg (6%)
Vitamin B6     0.1 mg (8%)
Folate (vit. B9)     19 μg (5%)
Vitamin C     1.9 mg (2%)
Calcium     33 mg (3%)
Iron     0.3 mg (2%)
Magnesium     12 mg (3%)
Phosphorus     35 mg (5%)
Potassium     320 mg (7%)
Sodium     69 mg (5%)
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

[Data collected from wikipedia***]

Thursday, February 14, 2013

Why DNA methylation Is Important for our body?

DNA methylation is  very important biochemical reaction for cell function in our body. The process by which a methyl group (one carbon atom attached to three hydrogen atoms) is added to part of a DNA molecule is known as DNA methylation reaction.
DNA methylation is so much important reaction in regulating gene expression for an individual.
Another so and so much important information is that DNA methylation reaction does not allow the expression of the genes which are related for various harmful and fatal disease such as viral and other disease-related genes.
Abnormal DNA methylation is responsible for many disease which are caused by poorly developed gene. It may also cause cancer.

In this case the vegetable named broccoli play a very crucial role for development of strong gene structure by better DNA methylation. Broccoli has shown to inhibit Helicobacter pylori (the bacteria thought to cause gastric ulcers).
The sulforaphane ( sulforaphane is present in broccoli ) plays a vital  role in activating more than 200 different genes in our body actively.
Broccoli also protects men from prostate cancer.
Kidney dysfunction may also caused by disturbance in DNA methylation.
So eat broccoli and keep your body disease free.

If this information is useful please give feedback in comment box. Thanks.

Wednesday, February 6, 2013

Can Broccoli help us to solve vitamin D deficiency?

Vitamin D is very essential for our health because vitamin D gives support to our bone and teeth. Intestinal absorption of calcium is done by this vitamin D. So the possibility of fracture of bone is reduced, the risk of osteoporosis also reduced after absorption of Ca. A lots of researches have done on vitamin D and also lots of researches are running on this essential vitamin. Some research studies have said that vitamin D can prevent the activities of cancer causing cells. Vitamin D has good performance against the breast cancer, prostate cancer and colon cancer. Vitamin D is also good for cardiovascular health. Vitamin D is needed by all aged people.

Now it is a question ''Can Broccoli help us to solve vitamin D deficiency?''
Without having any doubt in mind we can say ''obviously yes''. This vegetable helps us not only to solve the vitamin D deficiency but also it heap us Vitamin D is needed in epidemic. If there is a need of large supplemental doses of vitamin D to offset deficiency, in this case vitamin K and vitamin A help us to keep our vitamin D metabolism in balance in our body. A strong combination of both vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene) and vitamin K is present in broccoli in abundant. The people who wants to  rebuild vitamin D stores through vitamin D supplements, they can eat Broccoli as salad. It will be better for them. Broccoli can provide sufficient amount of vitamin D at raw stage and also at boiled stage.
Broccoli is a ideal vegetable for us because it provides not only vitamin D but also other vitamins such as vitamin A, Vitamin C, vitamin K vitamin B-complex and other necessary vitamins. Broccoli provides different components that can fight against different cancers.

Related posts:
Anti-cancer properties of Broccoli and Other benefits of Broccoli

How does broccoli improve our body's detoxification system?
Usefulness Of Broccoli

How does broccoli improve our body's detoxification system?

How does broccoli improve our body's detoxification system?
Ans: The three glucosinolate phytonutrients substance  present in broccoli (they are Glucoraphanin, gluconasturtiian, and glucobrassicin) work together and this  trio is can support all the reactions of our body’s detox process properly. The process of activation, neutralization, and elimination of unwanted contaminants is helped by this trio. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) which  are knowns as  the detox-regulating molecules produced from broccoli's glucosinolates. At a genetic level, Isothiocyanates (ITCs) help to control the detox process. In this way Broccoli improves our body's detoxification system.
So have a nice meal with Broccoli.

Related posts: 

Anti-cancer properties of Broccoli and Other benefits of Broccoli
Can Broccoli help us to solve vitamin D deficiency?

Usefulness Of Broccoli 

Tuesday, January 29, 2013

Cholesterol-lowering benefits of Broccoli

Broccoli has cholesterol-lowering benefits. When we cook it by boiling the fiber of it does not destroyed. But this fiber of broccoli can bind together with bile acids in our digestive tract thought they've been steamed. At the time of  binding process, it becomes easier for bile acids to be excreted, as a  result of it, lowering of our cholesterol levels is occurred. But raw broccoli has lower cholesterol-lowering capability.

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Nutrients Present In Maize Or Corn

Nutrients Present In Maize Or Corn

Maize or Corn is an Agronomic crop. In many countries maize or corn is used as a main food from ancient time. Maize is very important than any other cereal crops which is used as main food. Maize contains more vitamins and mineral than rice and wheat. Maize and ground dried maize is used as staple food. To produce pozole, tortillas, atole and tamales, maize is used. As a main food or staple food of Mexico various types of food items are prepared by maize.
Maize provides same energy in proportion to rice but maize ( protein 9.4g/100g) provides more protein than rice ( 7.1g/100g ). We get more magnesium from maize ( 120 mg /100 gm ) than rice ( 25 mg /100 gm ). Over all maize provides a balance nutrient than any other crops. Wheat is only one competitor of maize in contrast of nutrient. 

One cup of sweet corn contains-
125 calories,
5 g of protein, 
2.9 g of dietary fiber  
27 g of energy-providing carbohydrates
1.9 g of fat includes no cholesterol
1.4 g of healthy unsaturated fats.
10 mg of vitamin C
B vitamins except vitamin B-12
0.23 mg of thiamine
0.08 mg of riboflavin
2.56 mg of niacin
0.14 mg of vitamin B-6 and 61 mcg of folate
a small amount of vitamins E and K
271 IU of vitamin A ( white corn only has 2 IU)

One serving contains -
3 mg of calcium
0.8 mg of iron
129 mg of phosphorus
392 mg of potassium
0.24 mg of the trace mineral manganese
0.84 g of omega-6 and 0.025 g of omega-3

So maize is a very important crop that can insure not only our food security but also nutrient security.

For the high nutrient value of maize or corn, now poultry feed, dairy feed and fish feed are mixed with or prepare with maize.

Thursday, January 17, 2013

Role Of CARROTS As A Disease Preventing Vegetable

Various crops are produced in agricultural farm. This crops are very beneficial to us in many aspects. But we do not know how they are beneficial to us. Maximum time we eat foods to meet up our hungry and for test of the foods. But if we  know the beneficial properties of corps or foods, maximum time we can prevent diseases as vegetables contains diseases preventing compounds or properties naturally.

Role Of CARROTS As A Disease Preventing Vegetable:
If you eat carrot regularly , you need not to take any vitamin A supplements.
Carrot contains potassium and this potassium  helps us in preventing our skin from getting dry. Carrot also contains anti-inflammatory properties.
Carrot helps us to develop mental health.
If we regularly consume carrot , it will reduce our blemishes.
Carrot taking regularly, can cure eczema and it will clean our urinary tract.
There is research funding that says carrot taking with milk at morning regularly can sharp your memory.
Sometimes to cure anemia, row carrot with beetroot and lemon juice is used.
If you want to remove extra fat, you can take the carrot juice with lettuce juice.
If you take Juice of carrot and parsley twice in a day, it will reduces inflammation of bone joints.
To stops nose bleeding carrot paste is applied on forehead and above the nostrils
To stop constipation carrot juice is used.
Vitamin A act as anti-aging agents because it is an anti-oxidant. Vitamin A also improve our vision capacity.
falcarindiol is a component of carrot which act as an anticancer.
Carrot is also prevents to form infection.
 Carrots have beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and lutein, this compound reduce the probability of heart diseases. If you eat 6 to 8 carrots in a day, there is a very less probability of stroke.

If we consume carrot , our teeth and gum also will be healthy.

Tuesday, January 15, 2013

Anti-cancer properties of Broccoli and Other benefits of Broccoli

Broccoli is a horticultural crop ( Horticulture is a Branch of Agriculture). Broccoli helps as in many ways. As vegetable the demand of broccoli in whole world is increasing rapidly. All types of vegetable is very good for our health. But vegetable like broccoli has some special characteristics such as broccoli has anti-cancer properties that more essential properties needed by us at present.
Anti-cancer properties of Broccoli:
1. Broccoli has diindolylmethane and small amounts of selenium which are known as anti-cancer compounds. By consuming broccoli we can take this in our body to save us.
2. The 3,3'-Diindolylmethane that are present in broccoli acts as a modulator of the innate immune response system and anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity and protect us from cancer.
3. Broccoli has the compound named glucoraphanin that can be processed into an anti-cancer compound that is sulforaphane to protect us.
4. Broccoli provides us indole-3-carbinol that acts as a DNA repair in cells and protect us from breakdown of DNA and from harmful mutation.
5. Indole-3-carbinol that is present in Broccoli  block the growth of cancer cells and protect us from cancer.
6. Indole-3-carbinol also prevent the cells of breast cancer and protect women from cancer.
Other benefits:
1. Broccoli helps us to prevent heart disease effectively.
2. Broccoli reduces the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
3. Broccoli is a source high amount of beta-carotene that is needed for body.
4. Fiber of broccoli is able to detoxification of excess oil cholesterol in our body.
5. Lutein that is present in broccoli prevents loss of vision due to macular degeneration of old age.

After all above discussion we can say broccoli is very much useful to us. We have to keep broccoli in our vegetable's list. As cure is better than medicine, so we try to protect us from cancer by consuming broccoli. Farmers must grow broccoli by considering the demand of broccoli in market as the demand of broccoli is increasing.

Thanks to all.
If you are benefited from this information , please give a feedback.

Related post:
Can Broccoli help us to solve vitamin D deficiency?

How does broccoli improve our body's detoxification system?

Usefulness Of Broccoli